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1800 U.S. Census Quick Facts

  • 1800 U.S. Census Date:
    August 4, 1800
    (All reported data is “as of” this official date chosen by the census Agency)
  • Census Duration:
    9 months
  • 1800 U.S. Census Population:
    5,308,483
  • President during 1800 Census:
    John Adams

1800 Census Data: 2nd United States Census

  • The inhabitants of The District of Columbia were included under Maryland in the 1800 Census.
  • Of the 5,308,483 people reported living in the United States, 893,602 were slaves.
  • 16 states participated
  • News states in 1800 Census: Kentucky, Tennessee, Vermont

Information requested by the 1800 U.S. Census


  • Name of the head of the family
  • Number of free white males

    • Under 10 years of age
    • Between 10 and 16
    • Between 16 and 26, including the head of the family
    • Between 26 and 45, including the head of the family
    • 45 and upwards, including the head of the family

  • Number of free white females

    • Under 10 years of age
    • Between 10 and 16
    • Between 16 and 26, including the head of the family
    • Between 26 and 45, including the head of the family
    • 45 and upwards, including the head of the family

  • Number of other free persons, except Indians, not taxed
  • Number of slaves

What was lost from the 1800 U.S. Census?

Original records of the 1800 census from Georgia, Kentucky, New Jersey, Tennessee and Virginia were lost as well as records from Indiana, Mississippi and Northwest Territories.

Famous people in history: Eli Whitney

Eli Whitney is perhaps best known for his 1794 patent of the cotton gin, which revolutionized the tedious process of cleaning fiber from seeds of cotton. His invention was so successful it was often pirated and Whitney experienced years of court battles and licensing infringement over the invention.

With the invention of the cotton gin (short for engine), cotton grew into the most important crop in the U.S. by the turn of the 19th century. Production of cotton grew astronomically in the coming decades, and was further aided by the growth of slave labor. By 1860, one third of the Southern population, or four million people, in the U.S. were enslaved.

Historical events surrounding the 1800 U.S. Census


  • April 24, 1800: The Library of Congress is founded.
  • November 16, 1801: The first edition of the New York Post is published.
  • May 14, 1804: Lewis & Clark begin their expedition into the newly acquired Louisiana Territory.